Commentaries are short, narrowly focused articles of contemporary interest and usually take one of two forms:

The first form is a discussion of an article or trial that was recently published or that is soon to be published, and that is interesting enough to warrant further comment or explanation. This type of commentary discusses specific issues within a subject area rather than the whole field, explains the implications of the article and puts it in context. Opinions are welcome as long as they are factually based.
The second form is more editorial in nature and covers an aspect of an issue that is relevant to the journal’s scope, for example discussion of the impact of new technology on research and treatment.
A maximum of ten articles may be included in the references.

Preparing your manuscript
The information below details the section headings that you should include in your manuscript and what information should be within each section.

Please note that your manuscript must include a ‘Declarations’ section including all of the subheadings (please see below for more information).

Title page
The title page should:

present a title that includes, if appropriate, the study design e.g.:
“A versus B in the treatment of C: a randomized controlled trial”, “X is a risk factor for Y: a case control study”, “What is the impact of factor X on subject Y: A systematic review”
or for non-clinical or non-research studies: a description of what the article reports
list the full names, institutional addresses and email addresses for all authors
if a collaboration group should be listed as an author, please list the Group name as an author. If you would like the names of the individual members of the Group to be searchable through their individual PubMed records, please include this information in the “Acknowledgements” section in accordance with the instructions below
indicate the corresponding author
The Abstract should not exceed 350 words and should be structured with a background, main body of the abstract and short conclusion. Please minimize the use of abbreviations and do not cite references in the abstract.

Three to ten keywords representing the main content of the article.

The Background section should explain the background to the article, its aims, a summary of a search of the existing literature and the issue under discussion.

Main text
This should contain the body of the article, and may also be broken into subsections with short, informative headings.

This should state clearly the main conclusions and include an explanation of their relevance or importance to the field.

List of abbreviations
If abbreviations are used in the text they should be defined in the text at first use, and a list of abbreviations should be provided.

All manuscripts must contain the following sections under the heading ‘Declarations’:

Ethics approval and consent to participate
Consent for publication
Availability of data and material
Competing interests
Authors’ contributions
Authors’ information (optional)
Please see below for details on the information to be included in these sections.

If any of the sections are not relevant to your manuscript, please include the heading and write ‘Not applicable’ for that section.

Ethics approval and consent to participate
Manuscripts reporting studies involving human participants, human data or human tissue must:

include a statement on ethics approval and consent (even where the need for approval was waived)
include the name of the ethics committee that approved the study and the committee’s reference number if appropriate
Studies involving animals must include a statement on ethics approval.

See our editorial policies for more information.

If your manuscript does not report on or involve the use of any animal or human data or tissue, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Consent for publication
If your manuscript contains any individual person’s data in any form (including and individual details, images or videos), consent to publish must be obtained from that person, or in the case of children, their parent or legal guardian. All presentations of case reports must have consent to publish.

You can use your institutional consent form or our consent form if you prefer. You should not send the form to us on submission, but we may request to see a copy at any stage (including after publication).

See our editorial policies for more information on consent for publication.

If your manuscript does not contain data from any individual person, please state “Not applicable” in this section.

Availability of data and materials
All manuscripts must include an ‘Availability of data and materials’ statement. Data availability statements should include information on where data supporting the results reported in the article can be found including, where applicable, hyperlinks to publicly archived datasets analysed or generated during the study. By data we mean the minimal dataset that would be necessary to interpret, replicate and build upon the findings reported in the article. We recognise it is not always possible to share research data publicly, for instance when individual privacy could be compromised, and in such instances data availability should still be stated in the manuscript along with any conditions for access.

Data availability statements can take one of the following forms (or a combination of more than one if required for multiple datasets):

The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are available in the [NAME] repository, [PERSISTENT WEB LINK TO DATASETS]
The datasets used and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
All data generated or analysed during this study are included in this published article [and its supplementary information files].
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study are not publicly available due [REASON WHY DATA ARE NOT PUBLIC] but are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Data sharing is not applicable to this article as no datasets were generated or analysed during the current study.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from [third party name] but restrictions apply to the availability of these data, which were used under license for the current study, and so are not publicly available. Data are however available from the authors upon reasonable request and with permission of [third party name].
Not applicable. If your manuscript does not contain any data, please state ‘Not applicable’ in this section.